U.S. Department of Energy

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Regional Building Energy Demand

When coupled to GCAM-USA and RESM, BEND enables a consistent, integrated evaluation of how changes in climate, energy policy, building technologies, population, and floorspace affect building energy demand over time. BEND also allows straightforward scenario analyses, such as the impact of longer heat waves or more energy-efficient building adaptations on building energy demand. Within PRIMA, BEND provides critical input about hourly building energy demand to the Model of Electricity Demand (MELD) for simulation of regional electricity production and use.

POC: James Dirks


Kleese van Dam K, C Lansing, T Elsethagen, J Hathaway, Z Guillen, J Dirks, D Skorski, E Stephan, W Gorrissen, I Gorton, and Y Liu. 2014. “Nationwide buildings energy research enabled through an integrated data intensive.” Building Simulation 7(4):335-343. DOI: 10.1007/s12273-014-0171-x.

The Building Energy Demand, or BEND, model simulates climate-dependent hourly building energy demands at user-defined scales, typically an individual state or utility zone. BEND combines DOE’s EnergyPlus model (for individual buildings) with a geostatistical analysis of regional climate, population, and building types/technologies to provide scale-flexible characterization of regional building energy demand.

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